Tuesday, November 27, 2018

The Catacombs of Paris

by Micah Brewer

Photo by National Geographic, photographer Stephen Alvarez
Deep under the streets of Paris lie a labyrinth of tunnels stretching eleven-thousand square miles with walls lined of bones. The bones used to construct these come from the millions of people that were transferred to the catacombs from graveyards in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Graveyards such as Cimetière des Innocents, were considered threats to the public. The overcrowded graveyards were detrimental to the overall health and cleanliness of the city due to the smell of the graveyards and the bacteria. The catacombs are known for housing a few notable figures such as Madame Elisabeth, Simon Vouet, and Salomen De Brosse.

Some people who decide to venture off into the dark depths of the catacombs do not always return to the surface. Some individuals who have returned claim to hear the walls speaking to them after midnight. The eerie voices were encouraging them to lose their way by travelling deeper into the tunnels and suffer a horrible death. Catacomb explorers recovered video evidence of this. The video displayed a man wandering, without direction, deeper into the dark pathways of the Paris catacombs. Eventually, the man panics and drops the camera. He is then seen running off into a dark corridor. It is also believed that different cults steal bodies from morgues which are then brought into the catacombs for satanic rituals.

Catophiles is the name given to the people who enjoy being in the catacombs and exploring them. Catophiles often throw parties in the tunnels of the catacombs. Catophiles also journey into unmapped areas of the catacombs in search of naturally made swimming pools. To reach these pools they must venture into claustrophobia-inducing tunnels and wade through murky waters to reach a natural oasis.

Organized catacomb tours are offered to the public in Paris. A ticket can be purchased for as low as twenty-nine euros which is equivalent to thirty-three dollars and six cents in U.S. currency. It is best to stay with your tour group to reduce this risk of getting lost and to reduce the likelihood that the walls will start talking to you.

Works Cited:
Roger-Viollet, “The Origin of the Catacombs.” Les Catacombs, 2018, http://www.catacombes.paris.fr/en/catacombs

Hill, Jacob, “Ten bone-chilling facts about the catacombs in Paris.” Listverse.com, 2018, http://listverse.com/2018/05/14/10-bone-chilling-facts-about-the-catacombs-of-paris/

Cooney, Caroline H., “Ten chilling stories from catacombs around the world.” Graveyardshift.com, https://www.ranker.com/list/ghost-stories-about-haunted-catacombs/caroline-cooney, accessed 2018

Further research links:
The link above gives you a more in-depth explanation of the history and structure of the Paris Catacombs.

The link above gives us more interesting facts about the catacombs.

The link above gives you insight into the Rome catacombs to compare and contrast with the Paris catacombs.

The Crystal Skull

by USC Aiken Student (BD)

Skull from the British Museum
Crystal skulls sometimes referred to as rock crystals are carved skulls that came about beginning around the 19th century and are considered works of art. Some are crystal clear and some are smoky colored. Some of them are human sized with fine detail while others are small and have less detail. Some people think it is a myth but according to Richard A. Lovett and Scot Hoffman, “We believe the Crystal Skulls are a form of computer which are able to record energy and vibration that occur round them.” “The skull will pictorially replay all events or images of the people who have come into contact with them (i.e. they contain the history of our world).” Thousands of them are produced in China, Brazil, and Germany each year but cost very little because they are mainly purchased by individuals because of their beliefs that they contain magical powers. There are many who are fascinated by crystal skulls and spend a lot of money on fakes so that they can display them in their own collection or have them because of their belief in the magical powers that not anyone can possess. Authentic skulls originated in Mexico and in Central America and no one really knows who made them or why.

Though the crystal skulls have had many archaeologists curious for years, there are stories about the skulls that they were thought to have supernatural powers and those that delve in the paranormal would invest in them. Some have the belief that they are associated with death and mortality. Mysteries surrounding the skulls claimed that they possessed supernatural powers with the ability to heal and expand psychic abilities and powers from people who have been in the presence of the skulls. There are dozens of these skulls in private and public collections but it is unclear as to how many because of the many fakes that are in circulation. Many of these skulls were carved thousands of years ago by ancient Mesoamerican civilizations. The 13 Crystal Skulls are shared by the original peoples of the Mayan and Aztecan tribes along with Native Americans as to their origin. That is supposedly where they originated from used by shamans or so called witch doctors in their healing rituals and each skull supposedly contained particular information needed and that one is no good without the other, hence the set together contain the information. Recent electron microscope analysis of skulls by British Museum and the Smithsonian Institute revealed markings could have only been made with modern carving tools. Thus proving that some were fake. (Electron microscopes are used because of it has the ability of high magnification and resolution as it uses beams instead of light.) Both of the museums estimate their skulls to date to sometime in the mid to late 1800’s. At that time most were interested in different pieces that were found in excavations to see if they were from ancient tribes and civilizations to display.

Though most of the information on the crystal skulls are mainly superstitious, there are a lot of people that believe in their abilities to cure illnesses such as cancer and other diseases. There are those that also believe that they can possess the ability to cause great harm as well if they have the correct information in order to “cast a spell” on someone. They may even come to the belief that they can tell the future of the world. If that were the case there would be many of us with crystal skulls in our bedrooms, in our cars, and walking around with one on our key chains similar to the rabbit’s foot. It does not matter whether we have the correct words to conjure up a certain spell or not it’s just the idea of what we believe in. This is usually why a person believing in something strong enough and hard enough will make the mind believe anything. We should all remember that the mind is a powerful thing and we should not take our thoughts lightly.

Work Cited:
Alltime Conspiracies.“The Mystery of The Crystal Skulls.” Youtube, 14 Feb. 2015, https://youtu.be/bUm-nIBgNMk

Richard A. Lovett and Scot Hoffman. “Crystal Skulls.” National Geographic. 2015, Accessed 22 Oct. 2018. 2 https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-history/archaeology/crystal-skulls/

“13 Crystal Skulls.” Crystal Skulls, 2018, Accessed 16 October 2018. 3 http://www.crystalskulls.com/13-crystal-skulls.html.

Chalgasiewicz, Rafal. The Crystal skull at the British Museum, 2009, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/Crystal_skull_british_museum_random9834672.jpg/798px-Crystal_skull_british_museum_random9834672.jpg

“Crystal Healing.” Crystal Skulls, 2008, Accessed 16 October 2018. http://www.crystalskulls.com/crystal-healing.html.

Pruitt, Sarah. “What are the Crystal Skulls?” History, 1 July 2015, Web. Accessed 16 October 2018.

Links for Further Research:
Crystal Skulls
This web source describes what crystal skulls are and where they come from. This website also explains how they look and last but not least how many fake skulls are produced each year.

Amazing Crystal Skulls
This website is stacked with tone of information about the crystal and the mind-blowing powers that these skulls contain. This website has multiple many tags that you can click on that contain different information about the skulls.

Crystal Skull World Day
In this website, it contains different subtitles that talk about the powers of the skulls, the size and what they are made of, where they come from, where you can find these famous crystal skulls, etc.

Suicidal Roommate/Straight A semester

by Tyler Shaffer

There are many urban legends around the country, some are more serious, and some are just so farfetched that all you can do is laugh at them. More than a few of these legends serve as warnings to kids and they are usually told by the elders in society. And then the kids go and spread the word. After that gossip does the rest. Some of these legends are very old, so old in fact that the time period in which they came to be is a mystery to most of us, then some are fairly new to the world and are still being passed around from mouth to mouth.

The legend that I picked was the Suicidal Roommate/Straight A Semester. This is fairly new legend that has only been around since the 1970’s. But nevertheless, it has made its way around the country and almost every college student knows of the suicidal roommate legend. The spread of this rumor seems to come from mainly other students and older graduated students who just want to keep the legend going. The first-place students hear it is before they go to college, either the parents say something to the child to warn them that its false and not to be fooled by some upperclassmen looking to pull a fast one on them. The second place it comes from is when the student is already in college. They will probably hear it from one of their fellow classmates. If it's not being told to them then the rumor is being told around them.

are many different variations of this rumor. All of the rumors have the same basis but when it comes to the fine details, that’s where the differences come into play. One of the rumors states that it has to be your roommate, and another says it can be a close family member or friend. Also, there is a stand-alone rumor that says if you witness your roommate kill themselves then you get a 4.0 but if you don’t see them do it, then you only get a 3.4. those are just some of the differences between these variations of the same rumor. The differences between these versions of the same rumor may have drastic or subtle differences. But the very interesting thing is that different versions of this rumor are passed around at the same school depending on how big the school is and the size of their student population.

Links for further research:


College bound:

Work Cited:

Williams, Andrea http://www.collegebound.net/content/article/college-urban-legendslies-students-love-to-tell/19214/

Jason http://list25.com/25-most-popular-urban-legends-still-being-told/

Jennings, Ken https://www.woot.com/blog/post/the-debunker-will-you-get-straight-as-if-your-college-roommate-commits-suicide

Lucier, Kelci Lynn https://www.thoughtco.com/if-roommate-dies-do-you-get-a-4-0-793692
Image: http://paragraphfilms.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/dead-man-on-campus.jpg?w=545

Alligators In The Sewers

by Kandice Thompson

Real Alligators of the Sewers, by: The Crazz Files
Many people believe the myth of alligators living in the sewers. Many people also believe that alligators are more likely to live in the big cities with cold weather. Not like Miami, where alligators are popular there, but in a cold city like New York, alligators are not. Living in cold cities, alligators would not be able to live in the sewers because they are reptiles, and reptiles are cold blooded. In the city, Miami, alligators are usually normal. As stated on http://animalquestions.org/reptiles/alligators/ “Although it is true that alligator attacks on humans have occurred from time to time, as a general rule alligators do not typically attack humans unless provoked in some way first.” Most cases, there are some people who will wrestle with alligators just for fun, but usually it is known to just ignore them and not make them feel threatened. Alligators would also not be able to live in cold climate sewers because of the diseases that might be in them. There are all types of things that are in sewers. There is sewage, diseases, and disposal from homes that transport into the sewer system. Living in the sewers , alligators would not be able to survive in that type of environment with all of the disposal in the sewers.

There are many different stories on how exactly alligators get into the sewer system. But there are questions if it is true, or just a myth. In the late nineteen twenties and early nineteen thirties there was a popular story of a group of kids who was shoveling snow into a manhole. In that manhole, an alligator was found. No evidence was shown because the alligator attacked the children making the children with no choice but to kill it. Another one of the big stories on how alligators might have ended up into the sewers was by families giving their children baby alligators as pets. When the alligator grows too big and the family was unable to handle the reptiles, they would flush the creatures down the toilet.

On some accounts about alligators, there was pictures and videos to show evidence of alligators in the sewers. Some pictures showed construction pulling out an alligators with rope around the mouth to keep it from attacking. Other evidence that was given was a video on an alligator standing still in a drain just staring at the camera. The alligator did not move or attack. But one thing that stood out in the video was a ball in front of the alligator. Possibly the reptile was looking for someone or something to come down and get the ball, so it could attack.

Work cited:
“Alligator Found In Uptown Sewer.” New York Times, 10 Feb. 1935, http://www.sewerhistory.org/grfx/misc/critters.htm. 22 Oct. 2018

“Alligators in the Sewers”. Sewer History, 2004, http://www.sewerhistory.org/grfx/misc/critters.htm.

Bartholomew, Robert E. “Alligators in the Sewers!” Skeptic, vol. 21, no. 1, Mar. 2016, pp.60-61 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=113837291&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Gormley, Jesse. “Could Alligators Survive In The Sewers of New York City?” Ripley’s Believe It or Not!, July 2018, https://www.ripleys.com/weird-news/alligators-cant-live-in-the-sewers/.

Mikkelson, David. “ Do Alligators Live in the Sewers?” Snopes, 10 July 1999, https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/alligators-sewers/.

Radford,Benjamin. “Do Alligators Really Live In New York City Sewers?” LiveScience, 3 June 2011, https://www.livescience.com/33322-alligators-crocodiles-new-york-city-sewers.html.

Speed, Barbara.“Yes, They Really Have Found Alligators in the New York Sewer System.” City Metric, 12 Aug, 2014, https://www.citymetric.com/yes-they-really-have-found-alligators-new-york-sewer-system-102

“Man Discovers Huge Alligator Hiding In Sewer Outside His Home.” Youtube, 13 Dec. 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VCWoxeOUJzc.

“Do Alligators Attack Humans?”, Animal Questions, 2018, http://animalquestions.org/reptiles/alligators/. 26 Oct. 2018.

Links for further research:
“Do Alligators Attack Humans?
Although crocodiles attack anything that moves in their sight, alligators are different. Alligators only attack when they feel threatened or their young is at harm. The female alligators give a warning when they feel they feel like they are being attacked. They give a hissing sound or they will open their mouth to let you know, to back off. Once you back off, then you won't be a meal. Most alligators eat fish but if they are hungry enough they will eat and find anything up to human size.

“Do Alligators Hibernate”
Alligators are cold blooded.They have to stay in warm areas in order to live. Alligators have common sense to move to different locations to find heat. If the environment is too cold for them, they will try to go underground to find warmth. Even though they need warmth to live they are able to be in 40 degree Fahrenheit climate.

“Alligators of the Sewer- Real Ones!”
In the early nineteen hundreds, an alligator was found in the sewers of New York City. New York City, Commissioner of Sewers, Teddy May, was told many stories on alligators living in the sewers, but he did not want to listen to them at first. He decided to investigate himself after hearing so many stories.

Resurrection Mary/Vanishing Hitchhiker

by Caroline Petersen

Mr Harmen. The main gate of Resurrection Cemetery on Archer Avenue in Justice, IL. September 8th, 2006.

It is said that up in Chicago, Illinois there has been sights of a pale girl with blue eyes and blonde hair on the street corners proceeding to ask for rides. She has frightened people since the early 1930’s on Archer Avenue. One night a young girl was walking home from a dance, which is now O’Henry Ballroom, alone crying after a fight with her boyfriend, when unexpectedly was hit on the side of the road as the driver drove off leaving the girl to die. Mary Bregovy who died December 25, 1932 and was buried in the Roman Catholic Resurrection Cemetery in Illinois. Some say she still walks the streets looking for a way to mend her broken heart in her white dress. Some also say she was a to-be young bride looking for a husband. Legend has that she asks for rides from taxi drivers and disappears in the back seat every time they pass the cemetery where she is buried.

Many people over the years have had different encounters with Mary they have reported. One that seems to stand out the most to people is with a man named Jerry Palus. Jerry, in the 1930’s went to the same ballroom years after Mary’s death, and noticed this beautiful girl dressed in white, who he danced with all night. Jerry that night asked if Mary needed a ride home from the ballroom as she accepted and gave Jerry her address to where her family lives. On the way to drop her off, Mary asked Jerry to stop by the cemetery. Of course, he took her, but as he tried to get out to come with her she insisted for him to stay in the car. As he followed her command, Mary walked towards the gates and vanished in the air right before Jerry’s eyes.

 Rivas, Titus. “Resurrection Mary.” April 7th, 2017. YouTube.

Works Cited:
Tilstra, Elizabeth. “Resurrection Cemetery and the Ghost of Resurrection Mary.” The Lineup, 05 Jul. 2016. https://the-line-up.com/resurrection-cemetery-and-the-ghost-of-resurrection-mary 

Grundy, Pamela. “Resurrection Mary & the Vanishing Hitchhiker” ParanormalPopcorn.blogspot.com 22 April 2010. Web. 17 October 2012 

“Resurrection Mary.” 29 Sept. 2018. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resurrection_Mary 

Kaczmarek, Dale. “Resurrection Cemetery (Home of "Resurrection Mary") 13 Jan. 1979. http://www.ghostresearch.org/sites/resurrection.html

Links for further research:
The Haunting Story of Resurrection Mary 
The article talks of various things such as the story behind Mary, excessive sightings, and how the ghost tale extends.

Love Lock Bridges of Paris

by Tamara Chavarria

Photo of The Pont des Art Bridge in Paris France crossing the Seine river, filled with locks
by Janna Kahila  http://www.jkahilaphotography.com/
Most couples dream of going to the city of love wanting to have something to secure their love. In Paris the Pont des Art Bridge has become a popular place where couples and tourists have created the lock tradition. They buy locks from the local street vendors and write their names and lovers on the locks and throw the key in the river that the Pont des Art Bridge crosses, the Seine river. The bridge according from Alissa J Ruben and Aurelien Breeden article has seven arches and was built under the rule of Napoleon. In 2015 the lock tradition ended because of people believing the locks were affecting the bridge and the environment.

In Roslyn Sulcas article she gives the reasons why people thought we should stop putting locks on bridges and that is because the bridge has been closed before. Other bridges around the world have experienced the same problems such as bridges in Brussel and Berlin. This bridge also had past damage from World War 1 and 2 from two aerial bombardments. With all these things wrong with the bridge plus together with the locks that was said to weigh as much as two semitrailers. All these difficulties with the bridge really made people fear for their safety so they cut off the locks on the bridge in 2016.

Alissa J Rubin and Gala Pinanigiani in their article argued that the bridge was beautiful before the locks. It was a beautiful spot in Paris where art exhibitions were held and painters could get a unique view or even have a picnic. The steel bridge resembled a suspended garden with trees, bank of flowers, and benches and is famous for being featured in the movie Le Pont Des Arts. But what really brought this love lock tradition to an end in 2015 was people who thought that there could be an alternative to the locks. They believed it could be fixed with the help of tourists and citizens.

To accomplish this in the article from Roslyn Sulcas said that they have made petitions on change.org and even made the bridge part of the World Heritage Site. Also in the article “Moving On after Love’s Bonds are Broken.” By Roslyn Sulcus, Anne Hidalgo the mayor also believed this was a big problem for the city and bridge. Like the quote in Roden Frankie’s article says “For reason of security, we have to find an alternative to these padlocks of love”. Instead of using the locks they could find a different way to symbolize their love such as Roden Frankie states in his article. To restore the Pont des Arts Bridge back to its former glory is by removing the locks finding a solution and ending this love hate relationship.

Pont des Arts: A Bridge of Love in Paris

Works Cited:
Rodon, Frankie. Huffington Post “Love Locks: The History And Appeal.” Aug, 28, 2015, ttps://www.huffingtonpost.com/frankie-rendon/love-locks-the-history-an_1_b_8056154.html Accessed October 12, 2018

Alissa J Ruben,; Breeden, Aurelien. 4 “Showing Love For Historic Bridge, Paris Removes Tons of Padlocks.” New York Times, Vol.164, No 56885, June, 2, 2015, pp.A4-A4. Academic Search Premier https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.usca.edu/docview/2074320533?accountid=25998

Rubin, Alissa J; Pianigiani, Gala. “On Bridges in Paris, Clanking With Love.” New York Times, Vol.163, No 56485, April, 28, 2014, pp. A7-A7. 5 Academic Search Premier https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.usca.edu/docview/1941458572?accountid=25998

Sablich, Justin. “Despite Concerns, Love Locks Prevail.” New York Times, Vol.165, No 57037, Nov, 1, 2015, pp. 2-2. 5 Academic Search Premier https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.usca.edu/docview/2074617369?accountid=25998

Sulcas, Roslyn. “Moving On After Love’s Bonds are Broken.” The New York Times, New York Times edition, June, 12, 2015, pp.A4 ttps://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/12/world/europe/paris-and-lovers-look-to-move-on-after-breakup-with-bridges-locks.html

FilipinoWebChannel, “Pont des Arts: A Bridge of Love in Paris” YouTube video, 2:38, Posted by FilipinoWebChannel, Jun 26, 2014,

Kahila, Janne, Pont des Arts, Jan 29,2014, Paris, flicker https://www.flickr.com/photos/janneka/12203329724

Links for Further Research:
Come to Paris: Pont des Arts
The above link directs you to a website giving more information on the history of the Pont des Art Bridge and includes a map of its location and a list of varies activates to do in Paris

Le pont des Arts. Film.
The above link is a movie that was filmed on November, 10, 2004 Paris that features the Pont Des Arts Bridge Directed by Eugène Green Pierre and stars Adrien Michaux, Natacha Régnier, and Alexis Loret.

Come to Paris: History of the bridges to Paris
https://www.cometoparis.com/secrets-and-stories-of-paris/history-of-the-bridges-of-paris-s1066 Above is a link that gives history on all the bridges in Paris and includes pictures

The Wawel Dragon

by Jacob Bross

The Wawel Dragon is a mythical creature that was born in Krakow, Poland. The fire-breathing dragon wreaked havoc on the town day and night. 2 The mythical dragon, also known as "The Dragon of Wawel Hill," was perched above the Vistula River and at the foot of Wawel Hill. He had a perfect view of the town and knew exactly when the right time to feed was. The King of the land was tired of the dragon destroying the crops and all other sources of food. So, the King had enough and told the town that the first one to kill the dragon could have his daughter in marriage. Immediately the townsmen and knights tracked down the dragon and tried to take its life. The dragon’s scales were so thick that the weapons of all the townsmen and the weapons of the knights could not pierce his skin and kill the beast. The town thought it was going to be like this forever, a dragon destroying everything the people created.

Nobody thought there was a way they could kill the dragon, all the knights from not only the King's kingdom tried to kill the dragon but also knights from other kingdoms wanted to try and kill the unkillable beast and take the hand of the daughter as a reward. More and more knights went to kill the dragon, but as they left, they never returned. The longer the year went on, the less amount of people tried to kill the dragon. As the town and the kingdom was scared for their lives and nobody attempted to kill the dragon anymore, a shoemaker came to the king one day and asked if he could have a shot at killing the mythical being. The king thought he would die because the shoemaker knocked on the gates with no weapons, no armor and no reputation. Out of curiosity the king granted him his request and the shoemaker requested a few ingredients. The shoemaker was a wise, young man who needed lambskin, Sulphur, and mustard seed. He set out for the dragon the next morning.

That night the shoemaker mixed the ingredients and created a powerful substance not even the dragon could overcome. The next morning the shoemaker set out to the foot of Wawel Hill and placed his dead lamb with Sulphur and mustard seed down, waiting in nearby bushes for the dragon to awake.
When the dragon awoke, he immediately stepped out of his lair hungry and angry. He spotted the dead lamb and went over to it immediately. As soon as it was digested the dragon felt weird and did not move. His stomach was roaring and he had a major stomach ache, he headed towards the Vistula River, trying to get the burning sensation out of his stomach, he drank the river, he kept drinking and drinking until the river dried up. When he sat up and tried to breathe fire, he couldn't. Immediately the dragon exploded. All of the people that could see the dragon erupted in excitement and ran towards the shoemaker. The shoemaker knew he was taken for granted and he showed everyone that he was smarter than most knights and he gets to take the king’s daughter as his wife. Nobody ever saw the shoemaker again.
This image is a statue of the Wawel Dragon that the people of Krakow made to represent the death of the beast that laid waste to their village.
 The Wawel Dragon was depicted as a giant beast who lived at the bottom of the hill next to the Vistula River as shown above.

HTTPS://Facebook.com/polishhousewife. 2 “Smok Wawelski, the Wawel Dragon.” Polish Housewife, 20 Apr. 2018, polishhousewife.com/smok-wawelski-the-wawel-dragon/.

“Wawel Dragon.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Oct. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wawel_Dragon.

“Myths and Legends.” The Legend of the Wawel Dragon (A Polish Traditional Legend), myths.e2bn.org/mythsandlegends/userstory6306-the-legend-of-the-wawel-dragon-a-polish-traditional-legend.html.

Runestones in North America

by Carrington King

The Kensington was discovered in 1898 by a Swedish immigrant Olof Ohman. Ohman was cutting down trees in Alexandria, Minnesota when he discovered the Kensington RUNESTONE the runestone was laying against a tree that’s how Olof founded it and named it after the one settlements. Many people felt that since Olof Ohman was Swedish immigrant that he stole the stone. After the stone was found many people came up with different theories about the Kensington Runestone. The Americans thought that the Runestone represented medieval because it had different symbols written on the Runestone. Some thought the written had something to do with a bloody death that had ten to thirty people had participated in.

The Kensington Runestone had symbols written on the front of it and the back of it. The symbols were written by two different people. After looking at the handwriting it two different ones. The first person wrote on the top of the runestone and the other person wrote on the bottom. They determine this by looking the two different R and the Y. They claimed that the words that were written on the stone was for the Mesoamerican to give land to Spain.

Olof Ohman eventually gave the runestone to Hjalmar Holand who was a Norwegian-American historian and author. Holand was an advocate of the Vikings visited the new world. Holand was the one who analyze the Kensington runestone. After he examine the runestone he claimed it as being authenticity. The writing on the runestone was for the Scandinavian and Norwegian in 1362 to help the Vikings navigate.

In 1830`s after the Indians was forced to remove away from their territory. Gloria Farley was the first hiked through a mountain where there was no path, but it was ten miles away from her home in Heavener, Oklahoma. In 1930 is when Gloria saw that the runestone was carved with “Indian Rock”. 1951 is when Gloria Farley moved back to Heavener, Oklahoma from Ohio. When she started to measure for the overhanging and semicircle of the cliff. After getting recognized for the runestone. British runestone in the National Museum of Scotland had the same symbols written on them. The six letters that were written on the Heavener runestone was from So Alf Monge in 1962. The second and the eight letters were claimed to be inscriptions for a Medieval cryotopuzzle because the date 11 November 1012. Later after examining and testing they found out that the written on the runestone means “Glome Valley”. The Heavener`s Runestone was represented as one the modern day runestone because it was a 19th century runestone for the Scandinavian settlers.

The Kensington and Heavener`s runestone were historical runestone that have history behind them. The Kensington runestone was a runestone that was a symbol for helping Scandinavian to navigate. The NFL Minnesota Vikings professional team was name after this Kensington runestone. The Heavener`s runestone was related to the Scandinavian settlers because it was to help the with Viking Revival.

Worked Cited 
AncientAmerica, “Heavener`s Runestone” 30 August 2014. 28 October 2018.
Covey, Cyclone, “The Oklahoma Runestone”, Ancient American Magazine,1994. http://ancientamerica.com/the-oklahoma-runestone/

Kensington runestone, “Kensington Runestone An Ancient Mystery Solved”. 28 August 2017. 28 October 2018. 2 www.thekensingtonrunestone.com/

McGaham, Jeff. “1362 Enigma Documentary of the Vikings arrival in Kensington Minnesota” YouTube, 11 November 2013 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KGOm9ZWmAV4 www.ancientamerica.com/the-oklahoma-runestone/

Links for Further Research
Covey, Cyclone, “The Oklahoma Runestone”, Ancient American Magazine,1994. http://www.ancientamerica.com/the-oklahoma-runestone/ MeandmyHDcam.“Heavener Oklahoma Runestone” YouTube. 07.Dec.2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jXw49Uy17Rw

Monday, November 12, 2018

King Solomon’s Mines

by Canisha Davis

Archaeologists found 3,000-year-old dung in an ancient mining camp atop a mesa known as Slaves' Hill in Israel's Timna Valley, by Michelle Z. Donahue
During the biblical days where you were worshipped more for your wisdom rather than your wealth. Where mankind strived to be wiser than most. Wisdom isn’t something you can buy nor is it something you can lose. A person who is born wise, remains wise when they become deceased. No one had as much wisdom as King Solomon. King Solomon, the third king of Israel and one of the wisest kings during his time. Despite how wise he was some of his actions were foolish. As author, Jack Zavada explains in his article, “Meet King Solomon: The Wisest Man Who Ever Lived”, to satisfy his curious mind, Solomon turned to worldly pleasures instead of the pursuit of God. He collected all sorts of treasures and surrounded himself with luxury. In the case of non-Jewish wives and concubines, he let lust rule his heart instead of obedience to God. He also taxed his subjects heavily, conscripted them into his army and into slave-like labor for his building projects.

Although he didn’t treat his people the best sometimes, they loved him. In Israel the people worshipped the ground Solomon walked on and was willing to complete any task he had given them. Jack Zavada also states that King Solomon greatest strength was his unsurpassed wisdom, granted to him by God. Solomon ruled with wisdom over Israel for 40 years, securing stability through treaties with foreign powers.

Archaeologists who search for King Solomon’s Mines says that there is no existence of King Solomon except in the Bible. King Solomon surpassed all the kings in wealth and wisdom. Solomon built the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem to house the Ark of the Covenant. The Jewish people love Solomon because he built the temple. But there is no prove that Solomon or his great kingdom has been found. His century, 10th century B.C is unknown. Many scholars question if Solomon was a great king or not. King Solomon’s Mines were never mentioned in the Bible. The story became popularized by a 19th century adventure story and no less than 3 Hollywood movies.

Works Cited: 
History, Discovery. “History Documentary 2016 - Unknown Secret of King Solomon Stories - National Geographic” YouTube.com, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YfpMLXPkkY8. 

Zavada, Jack. “Meet King Solomon: The Wisest Man Who Ever Lived” 02 October 2018. Thoughtco.com, 2018. https://www.thoughtco.com/king-solomon-wisest-man-who-ever-lived-701168. 

Donahue, Michelle Z. “Found: Fresh Clues to Mystery of King Solomon's Mines” Nationslgeographic.com, 2017, https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/03/king-solomon-mines-bible-timna-dung/.

Links to Further Research:
Gannon, Megan. “New Clues To King Solomon's Mines Found.” Livescience.com, 2013, https://www.livescience.com/39438-king-solomons-mines-israel.html

Maranzani, Barbara. “The Search Continues for King Solomon’s Mines: A recent discovery has shed new light on an age-old mystery.” History.com, 2013, https://www.history.com/news/the-search-continues-for-king-solomons-mines.

King  Solomon’s Mines. Dir. Compton Bennett, Andrew Marton. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1950, Film https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0042646/ 
The link above takes you to the Internet Movie Database listing for the feature-length film

Crybaby Bridge

by Jessica Craig

Crybaby Bridge located in Anderson, South Carolina that is no longer available to vehicular traffic
 Stepping out of your vehicle, and placing the keys on top of the hood begins the awakening of a mother and infants spirits. Placing baby powder around the hood, and chanting “I have your baby, I have your baby,” will result in your vehicles keys going missing, with prints of a baby’s foot showing up in the baby powder. All occurring on the famous Crybaby Bridge. Readers may view it just as a basic bridge, but the legend behind Crybaby Bridge holds more than just tread marks. Recognized as the bridge that holds a mother and an infant’s spirit.  Crybaby Bridge is distinguished as a nickname given to bridges all over the United states, including places such as: Ohio, Virginia, Oklahoma, Maryland, South Carolina, Texas, and Utah.

 Legend states that if you park on one of the existing Crybaby Bridges that you can hear a cry of a baby or scream from a women. Each Bridge in the United States has their own account behind the myth. Ohio, being the most famous bridge of them all, tells the story as a couple arguing, and the women jumping out and getting hit by a car, which explains why citizens hear the scream of a women while crossing the bridge. Oklahoma, holding the plot twist of them all, reading as not only one child but several children were thrown of the side of the railing by their mother, because they all were a result of her being molested. Texas, where you can hear the crying from a women below the waters of the bridge, whom was killed by her husband, who soon drowned the baby along with the mother. South Carolina, holding the original and most famous myth of them all, containing the mother throwing the infant over the railing then soon hanging herself. Being a citizen living in South Carolina, I have visited the local bridge located in Edgefield, SC. Driving down the spooky trail, we rolled the windows down and instantly I heard women like screams, hearing the screeching my friend had slammed on brakes, and while sitting there in silence our back windshield shattered. 

The definition of an urban legend or a myth is just that: Crybaby Bridge. Depending on one’s belief as far as hauntings or spirits, the noises could actually be from nature itself meaning old wood, old bridges, waterways, or animals in the woods, but the myths keep it intriguing and brings people in from all over the country to experience the historical momentum of the urban legend. Crybaby Bridge could also be just a memorable scare for local citizens. Feel free to visit this historical haunting for a bridge or just the beauty of the nature around it or to make the hair stand up on your neck, either way they are worth the visit. There is nowhere to run, or nowhere to hide from the spirits of Crybaby Bridge.  

Works Cited:

Summers, Ken. “Troubled Waterways: Origins of The Crybaby Bridge Legend.” Week In Weird, 2011, http://weekinweird.com/2011/09/03/troubled-waterways-origins-crybaby-bridge-legend/ 

Jarvis, Robin. “The Stories Behind These 9 Haunted Bridges In South Carolina Will Keep You Up At Night.” Only In Your State, 2016, https://www.onlyinyourstate.com/south-carolina/haunted-bridges-in-sc/ 

Willis, James. “Crybaby Bridge Project.” The Strange and Spooky World of James A. Willis. https://strangeandspookyworld.com/crybaby-bridge-project/ 

Lamkin, Virginia. “Crybaby Bridge: Monmouth, Illinois.” Seeks Ghost. 2012, https://seeksghosts.blogspot.com/2012/12/crybaby-bridge-monmouth-illinois.html 

Hudson, Marilyn. “Crybaby Bridge-Oklahoma Style.”2007, http://mystorical.blogspot.com/2010/07/cry-baby-bridge-oklahoma-style.html 

Links For Further Research:
Although this video is creepy it holds a documentary of the urban legend of “Crybaby Bridge.”

Shanghai Tunnels Portland, Oregon

by Austin Smith

Back in the 1850’s to about the 1940’s Shanghaiing was the biggest fear for any and every citizen of Portland, Oregon. Shanghaiing is drugging or tricking someone to getting on a ship lacking a full crew. The practice of shanghaiing was not only in Portland it was also in different areas around the world. Portland was by far the worst and most widely known incident recorded though. This being because of the vast deaths each year and how long the shanghaiing lasted. Lasting almost a century seemed almost unreal to most people but for the city of Portland it was oh so real. The history of the Shanghai Tunnels is not a pleasant or soothing story to hear at all. This being said the mayor and law of the town did all they could do to hide the horrible history. Even though they did a good job of keeping the Tunnels a unpopular topic the information and tunnels are still there and hold many secrets that would run any tourist away from the city. 

Some simple tunnels do not seem that scary, but these tunnels were no ordinary tunnels. They were run through just about every bar, grocery store, barber shop, just about any place where people would come to socialize. There would be trap doors set up in many different businesses within the city, especially the bars. This being because an intoxicated man is just that much easier to Shanghai or in other words kidnap. Bringing a stop to this would seem to be easy, instead police denied shanghaiing in the city of Portland and called the missing people a coincidence. According to Michael Jones a man who designated his life to studying the history of the tunnels, at one point during the almost century of the shanghaiing in Portland that around 3000 people were going missing a year due to the shanghaiers and their dreadful tunnels. 

Works Cited:
Mellema Valerie. “Portland Underground”. Legends of America, March 2008, accessed October 19, 2018, https://www.legendsofamerica.com/or-shanghai/

 “Shanghai Tunnels”. Portland's Dark Past, 2013, accessed October 19, 2018, www.uniquely-portland-oregon.com/shanghai-tunnels.html

Obitz Shirley. “Shanghai Tunnels” Portland’s Underground, published on September 15, 2013, accessed October 23, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THJNPIGT6xc

Hilton Todd. "Shanghai'd: The Portland Underground". Nowhere Video's Shanghai'd: The Portland Underground - The Shanghai Tunnels, published on October 28, 2015, accessed October 23, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DoO9wxxMceo

For even more leads than this article provides visit:
Portland Walking Tours
this gives you the option to look at tour

Oregon. Com
this give further information on the article.

The Oak Island Money Pit

by Alexandra Anthony

Location of Oak Island, Nova Scotia, Canada
An article about the journey of the Oak Island Money Pit by Ashley Morgan. On the shoreline of Nova Scotia in 1795, Daniel McGinnis as a teenage boy found the mysterious hole and told his two friends John Smith and Anthony Vaughan. It is known that pirates buried treasure in that pit and McGinnis, Smith, and Vaughan weren’t the first to dig that hole. They knew that by the first two feet, because of the flagstone that was covering what they thought was the hidden treasure. But it just led to more dirt. The boys continued and followed the previous walls of the hole when it was first dug out. The tunnel wall had pickaxes impressed into the walls. The hole was decreased in seven meters of the diameter. At ten feet into the pit, they found a layer of composed wood, the wooden plate gave the pit a base and was very sturdy. When they ripped up the wood believing they would be rich, they found more dirt. Twenty more feet later, the same type of wood, and the same results. They waited several weeks before they started digging again. When they went back they dug ten more feet and it felt like de ja vu to the poor boys. They went 5 more feet and then gave up.

John Smith soon bought the land of the money pit and a man named Simon Lynds joined the hunt. Lynds family settled in Nova Scotia from Ireland, and since Lynds was a “wheel-wright,” he also got the help of Colonel Robert Archibald, Captain David Archibald and Sheriff Thomas Harris. These men got a lot further than Smith, McGillis, and Vaughan. Thirty feet in the pit and they hit another wood platform, but this one had charcoal around it. Ten feet later, another wooden plate, but this one had sap to seal the tunnel. Another ten, a wooden plate is found but has coconut fibers scattered around it. This was good signs because the crew knew that coconuts were from somewhere tropical, like the Caribbean’s. They also knew that people used coconut fibers to secure the valuable cargo. Now the men were 60 feet deep in the pit, they go 30 more feet and find a stone. The stone had strange symbols, Each character of the mysterious text consisted of a unique combination of lines, arrows and dots.

Replica of stone found at 90 feet in the Money Pit.
Photo by Ken Boehner
In 1860, the stone was translated by James Letchi. Letchi believes it says “Forty feet below, two million pounds are buried.” After that stone they went another 8 feet and hit a wooden plate again but this time a metal pole came up between the timbers. The stopped for the rest of that day. When the crew came back the pit was filled with 63 feet up with water. When the men tried to drain the pit and the water came back immediately. This pit was made to toy with whoever got this deep, so it would be difficult to dig and find the treasure. Which only meant they were getting closer. The crew had multiple ideas on how to get around the water. First they asked they hired Mr. Carl Mosher to install a mechanical pump to drain the water but since was in the late 1800s the pump failed. Then they had an idea to dig from an different angle but the water flooded back into where they were digging. The Onslow crew finally realized they failed and they gave up.  

40 years later, the Money Pit, undisturbed, came the Truro Company. Anthony Vaughan, helped create the Truro Company, with John Gammell, Adams Tupper, Robert Creelmand, Esq., Jotham McCully and James Pitblado, the Onslow Company's Simeon Lynds, Dr. David Barnes Lynds. In 1849, the Truro crew removed the water and After two weeks of digging and removing timbers and was at a  depth of 86 feet. The next day, workers found that the surface of the water had returned to 60 feet again. The Truro Company thought about trying to plug the water from spilling into the pit but it failed and they gave up. The first tragedy at The Oak Island Money Pit was the Truro company decided to install a iron steel pump to drain the water. The company had trouble getting the pit drained and the pump exploded and scalded one member and injured several others. Four years later the Truro company decided to give up the rights to the pit never went back.
More companies tried to empty the pit with more expensive pumps after pumps, the companies realized the amount of money are putting into trying to get to the money just ironic. 126 feet later they hit an iron plate and they went through debris, coconut fibers, and oak splinters. As the workers were removing the debris they found a script, that said “VI.”  The script was proven by Harvard Specialist.

Photo of parchment discovered in Money Pit by Oak Island Treasure Company in 1897 provided by Triton Alliance
Franklin Delano Roosevelt joined the wreck company and was interested in the Oak Island Money Pit throughout his years of being president. He could return because of the war outbreak in Europe. William Chappell took interest in Oak Island and found the original owner of the pit, Frederick Blair. Blair allowed Chappell to dig once again in the pit. At 115 feet to 130 feet, Chappell discovered an anchor sink, an acaridan axe, miners pick, and pieces to an oil lamp. 

The next discovery was in 1979, using a camera to look inside of the pit. There was a severed hand, a corpse, and five treasure chests. Divers looked into the pit and found nothing. The Treasure Trove Act was set in place to watch over the treasure hunts. It was really the government trying regulate the money if found. Captain Kidd is believed to bury his treasure in the Money Pit in 1699. Also theorist believe that Black Beard allegedly buried his treasures there.  Black Beard stated only the Devil and himself can find his treasures. 

Works Cited: 
Dunning, Brian. “The Oak Island Money Pit.” Ancient Mysteries, Urban Legends, November. 2008, https://skeptoid.com/episodes/4129 

Morgan, Ashley. “The Oak Island Money Pit.” https://www.oakislandmoneypit.com/resources/ 

Nickell, Joe. “The Secrets of Oak Island.” Skeptical Inquiry, vol. 24.2, March/April. 2000,  https://www.csicop.org/si/show/secrets_of_oak_island 

Strochilic, Nina. “Treasure Hunt to Discover Oak Island’s Mysterious Booty.” February. 2014, https://www.thedailybeast.com/treasure-hunt-to-discover-oak-islands-mysterious-booty 

Links for further research:
An article by Ashley Morgan that has a lot more information that I can use to further my research. Morgan tells the story of the money pit and she writes about the theories of the Oak Island. Every company that has ever put money and time into the pit is talked about and Morgan talks about the tragedies of the pit. Even the government and the president was involved with the pit. 

“The Money Pit,” by Parker Morrell is about the finding of the Money Pit and only describing the very beginning. It is an article in the newspaper in 1939, and is well descriptive. Morrell newspaper article is very descriptive and he does a good job telling the audience the excitement of the discovery of the Money Pit. 

Bloody Mary and the Terrible Fate of Those that Wronged Her

by Jasmine Sligh

Bloody Mary
Bloody Mary

On a cold dreary night, you make the slow decision to call on Bloody Mary, something which you will soon come to regret. You went into the bathroom, stepped to the mirror, looked straight ahead and said I believe in Mary Worth, Bloody Mary once, a second time, then five more after. But at the end one thing changed. You stared in the mirror, but a face of someone other than your own was looking back at you. Your eyes started to bleed, but you still couldn’t look away. You couldn’t even move to run. You were stuck in your spot nowhere to run, nowhere to hide. The blood started to drip from everywhere. You grew more and more afraid as time went on.  But out of nowhere it all came to a bloody stop. The face disappeared. Your face was the only one there. You could now shuffle your feet. So you did what anyone would do, you ran as far away from the bathroom as you could. Just to trip on a rug right down the hall. I guess it’s just the bad juju from bloody Mary.
Bloody Mary has a long history that dates back to 555.There is this essay by John Jeffcoat, an antique anthropologist, that asks readers to consider history as a part of folklore to bring something so sinister back to life. He uses historical events to compare the likely hood of something as crazy as “Bloody Mary” being as real as you and me. The purpose of this article to do a simple thing and that is to prove that Queen Mary and Bloody Mary are one in the same. 
Childhood to Adult Life 
Jeffcoat’s article talks about Queen Mary and how she first assumed her name. It all started when Mary was a little girl her dad couldn’t bear a son with her mother. So he moved on to the next woman he thought could. Which in a sense would make her very angry because he disowned her. In order to remarry he changed their religion from Roman Catholic to Protestantism which to her probably ruined her life because under Catholic religion her dad couldn’t divorce her mom even though they were cousins. If her parents stayed together it would’ve ended in her taking the crown. He instead changed his religion making her mom and his marriage annulled and cheating her out of a crown. Since that didn’t plan out the way it was supposed to she ended up having to wait for her weak younger brother that he had with his new wife to die before she was even reinstated.
When she was finally reinstated she tried to change the parliament back over to Roman Catholic through force. Some of the people were quite adamant about their religion. They believed in their religion to the fullest and were burned alive for it. Which in fact gave Queen Mary her name Bloody Mary. So for Queen Mary life has never been easy with the dislike of her father then her kingdom. The one person who would love her to no end never got the chance to. I can see why she is so angry. She has never been loved by anyone her kingdom or family, so she probably goes on to show people how she feels by hunting young teenage girls who dare to even say her name. I gave you the knowledge. You can drink from my fountain, or you can sip, but even if you ask me I will tell you every time that Bloody Mary is just as real as you and me.

According to this video multiple kids tried to chant up Bloody Mary. The one that seemed to work even a little was the one when they said I know who killed your baby or I killed your baby.

Work cited:
Ellis, Bill. “Lucifer Ascending.” Curious Tendency, 13 Oct. 2011, https://curioustendency.blogspot.com/2011/10/legend-of-bloody-mary.html 
Dylan.” 11 Bloody Mary Challenges That Mysteriously Worked” YouTube, 17 Aug. 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q71v1xfVF8I 
Howard, Crissy. 2 “The True Story Of Bloody Mary, The Woman Behind The Mirror.” All Things Interesting, 28 Nov. 2016, https://allthatsinteresting.com/bloody-mary 
Jeffcoat, John. ”English Bible History: 3 Queen “Bloody” Mary.” 
Greatsie. www.greatsite.com/timeline-english-bible-history/queen-mary.html Paramore riot. 4 “Bloody Mary.” Photograph. Fanpop, 2009. Web. 23.Oct. 2012 http://images2.fanpop.com/images/photos/5600000/BM-bloody-mary-5696723-580-780.jpg 
Robinson, Khadijih. “Legendary Bloody Mary” Can of mystery, 24 Oct. 2012, http://canofmystery.blogspot.com/search?q=bloody+mary 
Starkly, David. “Timeline world history documentaries: 3 Mary l- Bloody Mary. “YouTube, 3 Feb. 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1eaMix9x4
Links for further research:
Timeline world history documentaries: Mary l - Bloody Mary https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1eaMix9x4HE The man on the video give actual accounts or historical events about bloody Mary or queen Mary her religion and he shows actual places where thing took place.
The True Story Of Bloody Mary, The Woman Behind The Mirror https://allthatsinteresting.com/bloody-mary The author of this article gives actual historical evidence to help prove that bloody Mary is real.
Legendary “Bloody” Mary http://canofmystery.blogspot.com/search?q=bloody+mary They give you a little history behind bloody Mary which doesn’t include the queen and some that does.

Glastonbury Abbey

by Taylor Varn
Glastonbury Abbey
The town of Glastonbury has always been a mysterious town full of legend, it has always been identified with the mysterious isle of Avalon since the 12th century. The Glastonbury Church was said to be founded by Joseph pf Armathea. Legend says Joseph was also the keeper of the holy grail, the Holy Grail was the dish, plate, cup or vessel that caught Jesus’ blood during his crucifixion. The church was the first christain church of Britain after the death of Christ. The church was destroyed in a fire on 1184. A few years later in 1190 monks of Glastonbury Abbey claimed they had found the grave of Arthur and Guinevere in ruins of the church. Arthur was the guardian of Glastonbury, everyone looked up to him as if he was a hero. They apparently found a stone in the ruins that said, “here lies Arthur, king”, under the stone they found large bones which was claimed to be his Queens. Pilgrims and Historians were drawn to this site. It is a huge attraction from medieval theme right up to this day.

Arthur has always been a big deal associated with Glastonbury for 800 years, though today there are no physical remains of him or his queen in the tomb. The Lady Chapel was built over the remains of first church after it burnt down, though the walls of the old church still remain standing. They reconstructed the tomb so people that visited would understand how the tomb look as it was discovered. Finding this tomb was apparently the first evidence that Glastonbury was the isle of Avalon. The bone where then moved to the south isle of the church, and later moved to the black marble mausoleum in front the high alter.
In this article it details the abbey a lot. It reflects on the history of Joseph and King Arthur and how they built the Abbey. It also tells a lot of information on jesus and how the church burnt down. Not only does it tell that, it also tells what you can see today if you go visit the new church that is built over the old Glastonbury Abbey.

Works Cited 
Hampson, Louise. “The Lady Chapel and Crypt Chapel of Joseph of Arimarthea.” Glastonbury Abbey, Archaeology, 26 Feb. 2018.
Urbanus, Jason. “Legends of Glastonbury Abbey.” Archaeology Magazine, 2016.
Sampson , Jerry. “The Lady Chapel and Crypt Chapel of Joseph of Arimathea.” Glastonbury Abbey Archaeology, 26 Feb. 2018.
Other Leads on topic:
http://www.britannia.com/history/arthur/abbey.html This web article gives you more information on the early Britain and the effects the Glastonbury had on Britain in the medieval time, it also gives more information on the myths of the town and the people to relate with it.
https://www.glastonburyabbey.com/lady-chapel.php This article tells about the Lady Chapel, this was the church they built over the remains of the previous Glastonbury church after it was burnt down years ago. It also tells how they built this chapel to what is today. It also describes the sculptures and monuments that are in the chapel, and how they relate back to the first chapel and the history.