Saturday, October 31, 2015

Killer in the Backseat

Martina Miller

The urban legend, Killer in the Backseat, originated in the year of 1967 as a caution to check our surroundings and our backseats. The prezi given by Abigayle Schuls and article by David Emery, states that the urban legend might have been provoked in New York  in 1964 when an escaped murderer hid in the backseat of some ones car, but not just some one. The car belonged to a police, the police that shot the man. There is some difference in this story than in the legend stories. According to the urban legends told it is usually a female driving the car, the scene is usaully at a gas station. There was one about a girl headed home from having a few drinks with her friends told in the article by Emery. The most common one is the story of a female at the gas station, the girl pulls up to the gas pump and pays at the pump, as she finishes and gets ready to leave the attendant comes over the speaker and asks her to come inside. The attendant demands something is wrong with the transaction. The girl is confused but comes inside angry from the threats made by the attendant. He explains to her it was an emergency and that while she was pumping gas a man crawled into her backseat. She looked out the window to see her door opened while the man crawled back out.
Unlike other Urban Legends this one has no record of actual murders, though the title is "Killer in the Backseat" no killings take place in the story.  Other Urban Legends include violence and murders, this one is only used to caution women to check their surroundings and to always lock the doors.
The creation of this warning of the Urban Legend was believed to be gang related. Barbara Baker states that gang members were told to come back with either the women or the woman's car. They would jump in their backseats, or hide under their cars, or just attack them in mid day jumping in their cars. The gang members often raped these women.
Works cited:
"Urban Legends- Check the Backseat." Urban Legends-Always Check the Backseat. Urban
 Legends- Another Variation of Killer in the Backseat. Web. 7 October 2015.

"The Killer in the Backseat." Urban Legends. Web. 7 October

Other references:
This Prezi presentation describes the Urban legend, its origins, and an analysis chart.
This article has information about the most common story of this Urban Legend, the girl at the gas station. It also touches base on the gang relation.

Unexplainable and Non Recreatable Crystal Skulls

Sebastian Hernandez

red cloudy rhodochrosite skull

A century has gone by and the art of Crystal Skulls still intrigues and puzzles Scientists, Archaeologists, Museum Officials and Spiritualists. Disputes over the authenticity of these skulls have arisen and there’s so many unanswered questions, such as, who made them? when?, and how they were made? Their origins are unknown, despite that, scientists believe that Skulls were eminent in “ancient Mesoamerican artwork, particularly among the Aztec”. People believe that they were carved thousands of years ago by ancient civilizations from the region of Mexico, with the purpose of supernaturally healing and expanding psychic abilities. Coming in contact with a Skull is said to allow the Skull to “replay all events or images of the people who have come into contact with them”. Others believe that they are “a symbol of regeneration" since some gods were represented by skulls. Mictlantecuhtli was usually depicted by a skeleton since he’s the “Lord of the Land of the Dead” and in Mesoamerican art he can be seen covered in bones with red spots that represent blood, a necklace made of eyeballs, and with bone earrings hanging from his lobes.


Aztec god  Mictlantecuhtli in the Museo del Templo Mayor in Mexico City.
Crystal Skulls are an interpretation of human skulls, usually “made out of quartz crystal” . They vary in shape, size, weight, color and age. The age of the crystal from which the skull was made determines its age, and scientists study that because determining its place of origin or year it was carved remains unknown.

Today’s most famous Crystal Skull seems to be the rare Mitchell-Hedges Skull which was made of one single block of clear quartz crystal and its realistic characteristics make it stand out from the rest of the skulls found in museums today. The Mitchell-Hedges Skull is so unique that “today’s most talented sculptors and engineers would be unable to duplicate.” Said to have been discovered at an ancient Mayan temple by a young seventeen year old and her dad in 1927, the skull remains one of the most amusing and most studied skulls of the century. Frank Dorland, a scientist who was inclined to doing an extensive investigation on the skulls history came to many jaw dropping conclusions such as the sculpting of the skull without metal tools and the perfect alignment of the jaw. The purpose of the skull could range from being used as a toy, to the use of the skull as an oracle device. Reports of the skull changing color and making noises have been made. The Mitchell-Hedges Skull has set a bar so high that scientists have come to the conclusion that the advanced “lenses, light pipes, and prisms alone display a technical competence that the human race only achieved recently”.

The Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull

Today we see the influence of these Crystal Skulls in media like Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. The movie consists of archeologist Indiana Jones, who’s in the search of the legendary skull of Akator said to give people the power to control the world. A constant theme in the discussion of skulls is the topic of power and authority. Skulls continue to be studied today and these studies are unlikely to cease anytime soon due to the numerous amount of unanswered questions. 

Works Cited
Cartwright, Mark. "Mictlantecuhtli." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 22 Sept. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.

"Crystal Skulls - Crystalinks." Crystal Skulls - Crystalinks. Crystalinks, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.

Lovett, Richard A. "Crystal Skulls -- National Geographic." National Geographic. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.

Mictlantecuhtli. N.d. Mexico. Web. 20 Sept. 2015.

Mitchell Hedges Skull. 2014. Web. 20 Sept. 2015.

Rhodochrosite-Crystal-Skull-Sculpture. N.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.

Links for further research:
 Smithsonian Skull and Others
"Research News." British Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.
This is a research on different skulls found in history and it has lots of images of different skulls. Such as the one found in the smithsonian museum and in the british museum

Skull Facts
"The Truth Behind Crystal Skulls: Facts." National Geographic Channel. National Geographic Channel, 26 Oct. 2011. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.
This article posted on National geographic Website gives you facts on skulls and their history and making. It tells you about some examples of how skulls have influenced today’s culture.

How Crystal Skulls Work
Freeman, Shanna.  "How Crystal Skulls Work"  05 December 2007. <>  20 October 2015.
This article provides an indepth explanation of how crystal skulls work when it comes to their unrealistic powers. This article also mentions some more of Frank Dorland’s research and a bit more information behind the study of the Mitchell-Hedges Skull.

Machu Picchu's Mysteries Continue to Lure Explorers

Tres Thomas

Although the archaeological discovery of Machu Picchu came nearly a hundred years ago, historians are still unsure of the function of this ancient Inca citadel.The Inca had no system of writing and left no written records, and archaeologists have been left to piece together bits of evidence as to why Machu Picchu was built, what purpose it served, and why it was so quickly vacated.

On July 24, 1911, a cold rainy day Hiram Bingham went on an adventure to observe and investigate rumors of the ancient ruins of Machu Picchu. He went through thick jungle, crawled over a log bridge held together by vines, and underbrush with venomous snakes. After going through that, Bingham found a grass hut. Inside were two indian boys, one lead Bingham and his two escorts to what is now claimed as Machu Picchu. One of the top finds in archeological history still till this day. Bingham saw a towering citadel of stone that was cut oh so beautiful. The way the stone was placed in this citadel not even a slim, flat piece of metal could not even fit in between them. Machu Picchu is full of buildings and plazas connected by long narrow stone pathways. There is one part that is sectioned off and is made up of walls, ditches, and what looks like a moat. It was not for military purposes, but more for private ceremonial reasons. In 1913, the article that made the discovery of Machu Picchu known to the world was put out by the National Geographic magazine. Hiram Bingham thought he found the “Lost City of the Inca”, that’s where the last Inca rulers were, until the Spanish came and conquered. Bingham argued and justified his conclusions for almost 50 years after his discovery and people accepted his justification. In 1964 Gene Savoy identified the ruins and proved that Espirhu Pampawas the lost city that Bingham originally thought. Research today by John Rose, Richard Burger, and Lucy Salazar-Burger says that rather than being a defensive structure, Machu Picchu was a retreat made by and for Pachacuti, the Inca ruler. Burger thinks it was built for elites wanting to escape the noise and congestion of the city. Brian Bauer, an expert in Andean civilization at the University of Illinois says that Machu Picchu was pretty small by Inca standards and maintained only about 500 to 750 people. Bauer says archeological evidence makes it clear that the Inca were not the only people to live in Machu Picchu. There were more people who actually lived in Machu Picchu. Experts say that faming could not happen in the grand terraces, but in surrounding hills because the farming could not have happened with the amount of farming that happens in a day. Most of the farming happened in the hills that surrounded Machu Picchu.

Works cited:
EvansDavid. "Machu Picchu’s Mysteries." Photograph. National Geographic, ND. Web. 21Oct. 2015.

"Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu." - UNESCO World Heritage Centre. ND. Web. 22 Oct. 2015.

"Machu Picchu's Mysteries -- National Geographic." National Geographic. ND. Web. 22 Oct. 2015.

"Machu Picchu -- World Heritage Site -- National Geographic." National Geographic. ND. Web. 22 Oct. 2015.

Links for further research:
The link above is a 45 minute long documentary on the true purpose of Machu Picchu.
The link above gives more information on the history of Machu Picchu
The link above takes you to to a book that talks directly about the history and mystery of Machu Picchu

The Curse of King Tutankhamen

Aaron Gooley

Egypt was a land ruled by kings and pharaohs. These men were treated like gods, they had power over all lf there land, and everyone worshipped them. When a king would die it was a ritual to have massive burial tombs with grand celebrations. The tombs were filled with many riches including, gold, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires. Some kings would die before the tombs were even finished. After time passed grave robbers would break into the tombs and steal the jewels inside.
There was one particular king named Tutankhamen. King Tut was also referred to as the Boy-King only because of the age he came to the throne. King Tut was fourteen when he was crowned king and died at the age of nineteen. He is one of the most well-known Egyptian kings because of his mysterious past. King Tut was the only known king whose tomb had not been discovered. It was said that the king who replaced him had Tut’s name erased from all records (Radford).
A man named Howard Carter set off on an excavation mission to find the tomb of King Tut. His expedition was funded by a wealthy Englishman who they called Lord Carnovarn. Howard was a very motivated man and stopped at nothing until his job was complete. He searched a famous strip of land called the VALLEY OF KINGS where may kings were buried. He still came up short after searching for many years, until one day when a man on his excavation team found a step that lead nowhere. Eventually the team dug down and found more steps until they reached a door with a sign that read “TUTANKHAMEN” (Smithsonian Journeys). The tomb had been buried under another king’s tomb completely sealing it off. When Howard and Lord Carnovarn entered the tomb it was untouched.  After discovering the tomb, the media took over, from interviews to viewings of the tomb.

The tomb was filled with Gold, and many other jewels, but what laid in the middle of the room was King Tut’s casket where his mummy was held. The casket was made mainly of gold
After a few weeks had passed Lord Carnovarn was bitten on the cheek by a mosquito causing him to become ill. One-night Lord Carnovarn was speaking to his daughter about his illness and suddenly passed away (Rompalski). This event was what sparked the curse. Many rumors started following this event including that Howard Carter found a tablet that read “Those who disturb the king at rest will suffer (Radford).” Carter claimed these acquisitions were false, but they continued to arise. After Carnovarns death many different tragic events followed like more suspicious deaths.
Researchers have been studying this case for many decades and still cannot figure out if the curse was real. There really is no way to scientifically tell if the occurrences were related to the tomb. However, some scientists have created a theory that the cause of the deaths may be related to mold spores that have grown overtime inside the tomb. The one thing that keeps the speculations down is that Howard Carter, the man who opened and discovered the tomb, was around Tut the most and was in the tomb more than anyone. Carter lived to be 68 (Smithsonian Journeys), which was an average age back then.

In my opinion the curse is not real and was an act from the media. They most likely were trying to get citizens scared and worried. The media were the ones who started the rumor about Carter finding a tablet warning anyone who entered would be cursed. The curse has bought a lot of attention to itself, and many years of research. To this day there is no reasonable explanation behind the events that happened over the course of those years, but after researching it appears that there have been no recent happenings.
The curse will most likely pass down to younger generations, but in the end I feel it will eventually fade away.

Works Cited:

“King Tutankhamen’s Tomb.” Photograph. Crystalinks.  Crystalinks. Web. 20 Oct. 2015

Dunn, Jimmy. “King Tut’s Coffins.” Photograph. Toureygypt. Toureygypt. Web. 20 Oct. 2015

Radford, Benjamin. “The Curse of King Tut: Facts & Fable.” Did the financer pay with his life? 2014. Web. 21 March 2014.

Rompalske, Dorothy. "King Tut's Tomb, Buried Treasure, And The Curse." Biography 4.9 (2000): 80. Academic Search Premier. Web. 12 Oct. 2015.

Isla de Las Munecas

Jalisa Pinckney

There are many haunted place in the world, the Island of Dolls in Mexico is one of these mysterious places. In Xochimilco, Mexico on the south of Mexico City on the canal there is a small island located on south. The small creepy island is actual hidden. The island tells a story of a little girl sprits wondering through the island. The island is consider haunted with her bad spirit. Legend has it a little girl was found drown near the island many years ago. No one actually know how the little girl died. A man named don Julian Santana Barrera found the little girl floating on the canal near the island. It is said that he witnesses her drown, as well. In the same spot he found the little girl he also found a doll. He saw the doll and picked up and put it on one of the trees on the island. The doll rest on the tree to please the soul of the little girl and to protect him for her bad spirit. The island of dolls is now a famous tourist attraction in Mexico City. “Over the years, La Isla de lasMunecas has truly become one of the most famous chinampas of Xochimilco based purely on its grim reputation and bizarre history( Swancer).”

Dolls on the island hanging on the trees.

The island water is shallow, and you can see the dark shadow of the trees in the water. The island is shaped like a rectangle and had mud all around the gloomy atmosphere. It is said that the little girl spirits lives there. Barrera’s believed that the dolls would come to life at night and kill animals. The evil spirit told Barrera to keep adding dolls on the trees. Barrera would sale vegetables be grew to pa for the dolls. The ghost of the little girl drove Berrera’s nearly insane, he was found dead on the canal after he could not afford the dolls anymore. Tourist that spend the night have said to her voice from the dolls on the trees. “It was said that the dolls would come to life at night and roam the islands brutally killing animals, and that if one listened carefully the gibbering whispers and giggling of dolls could be hears as they went about their grim work( Swnacer).” Many people have visit and had there own experience. Tourist says they can hear a little girls voice at night.
The haunted doll at night.

Caption: Story of the Island of Dolls.

Works cited:
“Island of the dolls ghosts – True Scary Stories.” YouTube. Google, 22 Jul 2015. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.

Swancer, Brent. “The Mysterious and Creepy Island of Dolls.” Photograph., Mysterious Universe, 1 July 2014. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.

Swancer, Brent. “The Myterious and Creepy Island of Dolls.”, Mysterious Universe,1 July 2014.Web. 19 Oct 2015

Links for further research:
Welcome to the Island of the Dolls, the creepiest Place in Mexico
Jan Albert Hootsen analyzes the location Xochimilco, Mexico. The purpose of this source is to inform the audience on the geographic aspect of the location of the island of dolls.

Creepy Doll Island May Be Possessed, But Tourists Still Come
The article informs the audience about the tourists coming to the island touring, and their interaction with the sprits on the island

The 6 Creepiest Places on Earth (Part 2) # 6. Isla de lasMunecas.
Jan Strisiewicz summarizes the legend of the doll using pictures and captions in a more current prospective.

Vlad the Impaler

Ben Langdale

Vlad III or better known as COUNT DRACULA, was the most terrifying ruler in the 15th century. Vlad became notorious for his evil ways of killing people, including his most favorite; impaling enemies with long sharpened wooden stakes. This is a gruesome process in which the victim had a wooden stake slowly driven through their body before being left to die of exposure.
That is how he got his nickname “Vlad the Impaler.” Vlad’s victims were murdered through unbearable means including beheadings, skinned, disembowelment and even being boiled alive. Experts today agree that he is responsible of the killings of 40,000 to 100,000 people.

Vlad III was a 15th century ruler of Wallachia, which is today known as Romania. His father Vlad II was a member of the Order of the Dragon in which solid purpose was to protect the land from the muslim Ottoman Empire in which was increasing rapidly. His father died in 1456 in battle with the Ottoman Empire and Vlad III took the throne soon after. He began to rule in a bloody and dictatorship manner, striking fear in the hearts of his enemies. In 1461, the war with the Ottomans began as a result from Vlad III attacking Ottoman strongholds on their land. The Ottomans began to push back his army. During a night raid, Vlad killed many thousands of Ottomans, and impaled their dead bodies on wooden post for the enemy armies to see the next morning. The most famous military defeat under Vlad the Impaler's rule is against the advancing Ottoman Turks, Vlad supposedly had around 20,000 men impaled on the banks of the Danube. The second wave of invaders retreated immediately after seeing the horrific forest of corpses.

Vlad the Impaler used his punishments to the extreme. One account describes a gypsy man who had stolen something from Dracula while traveling through his land. Vlad had the man boiled, and then forced the other gypsies to eat him. In an attempt to clean up Wallachia, Vlad invited all the sick and old residents to clean up the streets of the city of Tirgoviste (capital of Wallachia.) He then invited the sick and beggars to one of his home for a feast and burned them alive.   According to many historians, Vlad participated and enjoyed eating his meals among the thousands of impaled bodies of his enemies. He would even dip his bread into the blood of his victims. This bloodthirst practice along with the name “Dracula” (son of Dracul) derived from his father's’ Order of Dragon  and Vlad’s birthplace of Transylvania would later inspire the vampire in Bram Stoker’s 1897 novel “Dracula.”  Bram Stoker was responsible for bringing the idea and belief about vampires alive. “Dracula” means son of Dracul who was Vlad the Impaler's father nickname.  “Dracul” means “dragon” " in Romanian. Dracul belonged to the Order of the Dragon, which fought the Muslim Ottoman Empire. Bram Stoker based vampires off of Vlad the Impaler’s bloodthirst and ruthlessness. Vlad the Impaler finally died in battle when his army was outnumbered by the turks but his body was never found. Many skeptics have their reasons, but to most, it’s because he is the real count dracula.

Works Cited:
Miller, Dr. Elizabeth.”Count Dracula vs Vlad the Impaler” count dracula vs vlad the impaler 2005 web. 21, October 2015
Andrews, Evan “7 Terrifying Historical Figures” A&E Television Networks 2012 web 21, October 2015
Nixon, Eli “10 Fascinating Facts About the Real Dracula” Listverse Ltd. 2007 web 21, October 2015

Further Research:
Vlad the Impaler. This cite has alot of information about Vlad the Impaler and the highlight of events in his life.

The Terrifying Truth about Dracula This cite talks about the Order of the Dragon, Vlad the Impalers life, and his missing corpse.

Vlad the Impaler: The Real Dracula's Dark Secrets This cite is great for reviling the dark side of Vlad III.

The Jersey Devil

Bobby Bryant

Most people that talk about the legend of the Jersey Devil traces back to Deborah Smith who was from England in the 1700s that married Mr. Leeds. The Leeds family lived in the area of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Mrs. Leeds had given birth to 12 children and was about to give birth to her 13th. The story goes that Mrs. Leeds said something about the devil during a difficult and painful labor and that when the baby was born, very soon afterwards, grew into a full-grown devil and escaped from the house.

There are so many versions of this myth / folk tale. One version is that the child was the result of a family curse. Another version is that Mrs. Leeds, who was a Quaker, had refused to be converted from the Quaker faith and that the clergyman who had been trying to convert her was so mad that he told her that her next child would be an offspring of Satan.
People in the 1700s still believed in witchcraft and many people of the period felt a deformed child were children of the devil or that the deformity was a sign that the child had been cursed by God. It may be that indeed Mrs. Leeds gave birth to a child with a birth defect and given the superstitions of the period, the legend of the Jersey Devil was born.

In the past 275, there have been over 2,000 sightings and the hearing of sounds in the forests which have been thought to be the Jersey Devil, but any "weird" things that happen in the southern parts of Jersey are thought to the Jersey Devil.
Even though this is a myth there are plenty of cool facts about it. Over the years the Jersey Devil has been called by a number of names, "Hoodle-Doodle Bird", "Wozzle Bug" and the "Leeds Devil”. Many organizations have offered a reward for the capture of the “Jersey Devil”. The Philadelphia Zoo offered $10,000 and the Hunt Brothers Circus offered $100,000.
The Jersey Devil my not be the easiest tale to believe, but it is one of this most interesting and fun to learn about. Behind all these myths and folk tales is a true story, facts, something to learn. That’s why I think folk tales are so fun, there is a true story to all of them.  

Works Cited:
Unknown Photographer  “The Jersey Devil” Photograph. The X-Files. 5/13/1998. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.

"Jersey Devil Facts." Nat Geo WILD. 24 Sept. 2013. Web. 21 Oct. 2015.
"THE JERSEY DEVIL." The Jersey Devil. Web. 21 Oct. 2015.

Nessie: The Tale of the Loch Ness Monster

Kayla Reeves
The Lake of Loch Ness. (Kate and Tom’s Blog

Our society is filled with legends, mysteries, fable, and fear for the unknown. From the Chupacobra to Big Foot to the Loch Ness Monster. Everyone knows of the mysteries, but who knows the truthes behind these mythical beings? Though the very first sighting of the Loch Ness Monster date back 1,500 years ago, it has been the most wanted legend of the lake of
LOCH NESS, since its first news debut on May 2, 1933. The creature really rose to fame when a 20,000 pound bounty was placed for its capture. This cryptid, a term used by cryptozoologists; or people who search or study animals whose existence is unknown, has been a lifetime winner of hide and seek.

The Loch Ness Monster has been “spotted” many times, the first in 1933 by Mr. and Ms. John Mackay. The couple explained that as they were driving along the road nearest the Loch they noticed a large creature rolling and rodding up and down against the water before it soon plunged into the deep waters of the lake. Soon after this, the world went in a craze and people were in a sure urge to discover this mythical creature. This led to people going to any and all lengths to “create” images of the cryptid, such as the infamous Surgeon’s photo of 1934.
Taken by Robert Kenneth Wilson, 1934

In April of 1960, Tim Dinsdale was able to capture what was supposedly a video of the cryptid after his six-day monster-hunt. Tim described the creature to be large mahogany, oval shaped with a dark spot on its side. With four minutes of filming, it was suspected to seem like the creature was waving a diamond shaped fin as it swam towards the shore, and slowly moving back away and plunging into the deep waters from where it first came. “Evidence” such as this video give more and more individuals more hope to find the legend and prove its reality.
 With all of the scientific and just everyday research people have done to find the truth behind this legend, there have been many stories, television shows and even movies about the Loch Ness Monster. In Scooby-Doo! And the Loch Ness Monster, the group of teenagers who travel all over solving mysteries, travel to Loch Ness of Scotland to vast Daphne’s Scottish ancestors’ home. As they are visiting, they are informed by Daphne’s cousin of the first annual Highland Games as well as how the Loch Ness Monster has been terrorizing them. Throughout the movie, the group experiences many peculiar things happening because of the Loch Ness Monster and soon enough are led to believe it to be a real creature. Towards the end of the movie, it is not only one Loch Ness Monster, but two. It is revealed that the both of the terrorizing monsters were merely a puppet and a submarine operated by two brothers of the town as a prank. In the final scene, Scooby-Doo spots what looks like the real Loch Ness Monster swimming in the lake.

 Scooby-Doo! And the Loch Ness Monster.

 With all the many movies and television shows such as this giving clues and hope that the Loch Ness Monster may be real, there could only be one way for everyone else to know for sure, REAL FACTS. I myself do think the Loch Ness Monster is real and don’t need any real evidence to clear my mind. It would be nice to have someone find the pure truth behind it all, but until then I will continue to believe in the possible myth.

Works Cited:
• “Loch Ness Monster Sighted.” A&E Television Networks, LLC. n.d. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
• Lyons, Stephen. ‘The Legend of Loch Ness.” NOVA. 12 Jan 1999. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
• Lafrance, Adrienne. “Google Joins the Search for the Loch Ness Monster.” the Atlantic Monthly Group. 20 April 2015. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
• “The Loch Ness Monster.” Dictionary of the Unexplained. Ed. Una McGovern. London: Chambers Harrap, 2007. Credo Reference. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
• Loch Ness.Photograph. 31 July 2014. Web. 18 Oct 2015.
• “Loch Ness Monster.” Brewer’s dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Ed. Susie Dent. London: Chambers Harrap, 2012. Credo Reference. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
• Robert Kenneth Wilson. Photograph. The Loch Ness Monster. “Surgeon’s Photograph.” 1934. Web. 18 Oct 2015.

Links for Further Research:
• Surgeon’s Photograph
This article talks about 50 facts about the Loch Ness Monster and the Surgeon’s Photograph.
• Scooby-Doo! And the Loch Ness Monster (Movie)
This video is an example of the myths behind the Loch Ness Monster and how people will go to the many lengths to create a different version of it.
• Loch Ness Monster Mystery Solved
This talks about someone thinking they have solved the mystery of the Loch Ness Monster.

Beast of Bray Road

Brooke Solomon

Cryptozoology is the search and study for animals whose existence is little to none. There are many animals like Honey Island Swamp Monster, Bigfoot, Yeti, Loch Ness monster, Bray Road Beast and many others. All of these creatures have never truly been discovered but people have claimed to have seen sightings of them. Although there is no real proof of any of these creatures but people continue to believe they have seen them.
The Beast of Bray Road is a creature that has been known to be seen near the towns of Delavan and Elkhorn in Wisconsin. The beast has many labels to the type of creature it is. Many think it is a werewolf, some think it may be Bigfoot. The reason this creature got the name Bray Road Beast s because the first sighting of this creature happened on Bray Road in Elkhorn, Wisconsin. The creature is said to be about 5-7 feet tall on its hind legs. It is estimated to be about 400-700 pounds. People have said to see it eating road kill with it in its two front paws.

The first sighting to ever go public was on October 31, 1991. A woman named Dorostine Gipson was on her way home one dark evening when she felt as if her car's right front tire was lifted off the ground.  She got out of her car and looked into the darkness. She seen some Creature Running at her very fast. She could not make out exactly what this creature was but she said it was “very bulky and that it was compared to someone who lifted weights a lot.”  She also claimed to hear the sounds of its “heavy feet”. She quickly ran back into her car and started to drive away when the beast jumped on the back of her car. Thankfully the car was slippery from being wet that the creature had fallen off. She showed her neighbor the scratches on her car the next day. Word started to spread and many more people came up and talked about their encounters dating all the way back to 1989.
There have been many sightings of the beast through the years. Most sightings end with the beast fleeing back into the forest. This creature has also been claimed to be the Michigan Dogman. Some claim that they have a lot of similar traits but they are located in 2 different locations. No one truly knows if these creatures are the same. They may be and they may not be.

Do you believe that this creature is real? Do you believe what people are saying or do you need to see it for yourself? There is no real proof that this creature is real only the sightings that have been reported.  It is a big mystery that is yet to be solved. Maybe one day it will be but until then it will be known as an urban legend.

Work cited:
Fox News. “Beast of Bray Road conspiracy theory”. Beast of Bray road Reported by Sean Hannity. Linda Godfrey. 2009. Web. YouTube. 15 October 2015.
Godfrey, Linda S. Kneeling Roadkill. Dec 1991. “Tracking down 'The Beast of Bray Road': Monster or Mirage, the Sightings Sound like Something out of 'Believe It Or Not’.” Web. 15 October 2015.
Godfrey, Linda S. “Sightings of the Creature known as the Bearwolf”. The Beast of Bray Road, Hunting the American Werewolf. Linda S Godfrey. n.d. Web. 15 October 2015.
Hall, Jamie. “Beast of Bray Road”. The Cryptid Zoo. Jamie Hall. 2005-2009. Web. 15 October 2015.
Harper, Scott. “Science of Lycanthropy”. The Federal Vampire and Zombie Agency. Scott Harper. 2001 - 2014. Web. 15 October 2015
Taylor, Troy. “The Bray Road Beast”. Unexplained America. Troy Taylor. 2002. Web. 15 October 2015

Links for Further Research:
This website gives you background information about the beast and talks about the sightings.
This talks about the sightings of this beast and when they happened.
This video is a documentary on not only the Bray Road Beast but also the Michigan Dogman.

Ghostly Athens

 Chloe Johnson 
The Ridges

 Athens, Ohio is a small town near the Appalachian Mountains and known for ghostly activity roaming around the community. Near the campus of Ohio University, an abandoned building formerly known as the Athens Lunatic Asylum is now known as the Ridges. The asylum was once a peaceful place for mentally impaired and war victims for medical treatment. As time goes by the Ridges became overcrowded, resulting in the patients being treated improperly. Margret Schilling was a former patient at the Ridges. She played hide and go seek with the nurses, but she was not found until several weeks later, dead. According to the article “the Ridges,” her death was not as mysterious as the marks on her body and the stain that remains on the floor.

“The Truth Behind the Stain”
Thirty years later a chemistry graduate student from Ohio University and others went to investigate the urban legend’s stain. They focused on the dark and white parts of the stain and found that it was a cleaning solution. According to “The Ridges,” no matter how many times someone cleans the stain it reappears. Margret’s body may have decomposed, but the stain and her spirit is still remain at the Ridges.
Margret Schilling

Simms Cemetery in Athens, Ohio is another ghostly attraction in the town. The cemetery was named after an official, John Simms who hung people for crimes. Locals believe from the article “Simms Cemetery,” that John wanders around the cemetery trying to find wrong doers to hang. The tree he actually used to hang victims on is in the cemetery. 
John Simms' Grave

 Locals claim they see John Simms hang victims in the night.

Another well-known legend is in the student dorms of Ohio University in room 428. Based from “Wilson Hall,” article the legend has it that Wilson Hall died in mysterious ways, but no one really knows how he actually died. Students that were residing in room 428 after him would hear strange noises and creepy things would occur. After so long a girl died in the same room, referring back to the article officials actually claimed the room uninhabitable.
Wilson Hall

Cemetery Pentagram

Within this mystery, Wilson hall is in the center of the cemetery pentagram. Simms, Hanning, Cuckler, Higgins and Zion are the surrounding graveyards. According to the article “Wilson Hall,” consider the five points symbolize ancient power and magic for free paranormal activity. Since Wilson Hall is in the center of them all spirits are skeptical in being true.

Work Cited:
Gammage, Jeff. “Big and Empty, Mental Hospitals Hold Promise.” The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia Newspapers, LLC, 12 June 1997. Web. 12 October 2015.

Hawley, Sarah. “Ridges Ceremony pays tribute to those with mental illness.” America’s News. APG Media of Ohio LLC, 27 May 2014. Web. 10 October 2015.

London, Christina. “Truth Behind the Strain.” YouTube. YouTube, 2015. Web. 12 October 2015.

Xnode. Simms Cemetery Athens Ohio 29. Photograph. March 26, 2013. Haunted Athens Ohio. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.

Xnode. Simms Cemetery Athens Ohio 26. Photograph. March 26, 2013. Haunted Athens Ohio. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.

Xnode. Simms Cemetery Athens Ohio 2. Photograph. March 26, 2013. Haunted Athens Ohio. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.

Xnode. Athens Ohio Cemetery Pentagram. Photograph. March 26, 2013. Haunted Athens Ohio. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.

Xnode. Athens Ohio Map. Photograph. March26, 2013. Haunted Athens Ohio. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.
Simmus Cemetery. The Ghost of Ohio, 2008. Web. 7 October 2015.

Haunted Athens Ohio. Haunted Athens Ohio, 2012. Web. 7 October 2015.

Links for further research:
Haunted Athens Ohio
The Haunted Athens Ohio clams to be the Official cite in terms of ghostly manner with in the community. Also giving information for Wilson Hall, the Ridges, and Simms Cemetery.

The source discusses the history and new beginnings of the Athens Lunatic Asylum.

Ghosts of Athens
The article grasps on the legends, magic, and ghostly activities, but it can alter some important

The Hook Man

 Caitlin Baxter
The Hook

The “Hook Man” story, is an urban legend that started as a belief in the United States around 1950’s and spread worldwide. The urban legend spread from United States to England, Scotland, and to other countries around the world. This urban legend is just a cautionary tale or horror story for entertainment other than a believable story that actually happened in reality. The Hook by David Emery, states that the moral message of the “Hook Man” is to convince young teens to believe the quote: “Sex is naughty. Bad boys and girls will be punished!” Warning teenage couples to not let their hormones lead them to a deserted area, where they realize they have made a mistake in the end.
The original tale starts off with a teenage boy, who takes his date to Lovers’ Lane to make-out. Lovers’ Lane was considered a dark and deserted area, which was a perfect spot to make-out with no interrupts. He turned on the radio to play some music to set the mood, while making out with the girl. All of a sudden, the radio announcer said that a mentally ill patient escaped from the mental institution, and is known as a convicted murder with a hook instead of a right hand. The girl is frightened, and wants to leave immediately because the institution he escaped from was close to Lovers’ Lane. The girl started to hear creepy noises outside of the car, however the boy figured she was just running wild with her imagination. The boy kept insisting for them to stay, but the girl wanted to leave right away. In anger, the boy sped off taking the girl home. When they arrived at the girl’s house, the boy went to open her door, and froze in a state of shock. A bloody hook was hanging on the door handle on the girl’s side of the door. One version of the tale, states that the car would not start, so the boy left the girl in car to find help. The girl kept hearing noises on top of the car. After a long time of waiting, she notices that her boyfriend has not returned yet. The next morning, a state police trooper rescues her and told her not to look back, however she looks back anyway. She looked back to see her boyfriend’s body dangling upside down from a tree over the car.
The legend of “The Hook” has spread worldwide, but the interpretation of the legend is often inconsistent. The tale is known to always include a hook and an automobile. As published in Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, this urban legend is believed to warn young teenage couples not to park in unknown areas, dangers of a mental ill or disabled person, and an example of why parents’ are concerned about their children going out by themselves.

Works Citied:
"The Boyfriend's Death". Encyclopedia of Urban Legends. JanHaroldBrunvand. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2012. Credo Reference. Web. 11 Oct 2015.

"The Hook". Encyclopedia of Urban Legends. JanHaroldBrunvand. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2012. Credo Reference. Web. 12 Oct 2015.

Emery, David. “The Hook” Urbanlegends. N.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2015.

Emery, David. “The Hookman’s Hook” Photograph. Pinterest. Web. 21 Oct. 2015
Wilson, William. “Hook Man (Urban Legend)” Brigham Young University. 15 Jan. 2014. Web. 21 Oct. 2015.
Links for further research:
Cruel, Kevin. “The Hook Man” YouTube. YouTube. 6 Jan. 2014. Web. 19 Oct. 2015
This link above talks about the original story of the hook man in Pennsylvania.

Idealsoft “Campfire Legends - The Hookman (free full game)” YouTube. YouTube.
6 May. 2012. Web. 21 Oct. 2015
This link above is a video of the video game based off the Hook Man.

S.E. Schlosser. “The Hook” 13 Dec. 2014. Web. 21 Oct. 2015
This link above gives a descriptive story of the Hook Man.

Bloody Mary


 “If you look in a looking glass for too long, you are sure to see the devil” according to a nineteenth century saying. There was a superstition that started in the eighteenth century saying that mirrors were to be kept covered or faced towards the wall. It was said that if a mirror was not covered, it was an invitation for the ghostly and dead to appear. As centuries past there have been several stories and experiences people have had relating back to this superstition of ghost and mirrors. One of the most famous stories is the one about a women named Bloody Mary.

 In the 1930’s many believed in the myth of Bloody Mary. They would play the game “bloody Mary”, they believed that if you walked into a room with a mirror, and the lights were out, and you say “bloody mary” 3xs, Mary would appear in the mirror. Historical rituals encouraged younger girls to walk up a flight of stairs backwards, while holding a candle they would see the face of their future husband. If the young women didn’t have a chance at marriage, and would die before they had the chance, they would see a glimpse of the bloody mary.

 There are many different versions of who exactly Bloody Mary is. One version of the Bloody Mary goes back to the time before Queen Elizabeth I of England became queen. The story says that Queen Elizabeth I hadan older sister named Mary Tudor who was also the daughter of Henry VIII. Mary Tudor was said to be a Catholic and had many Protestants put to death by burning them at stake. By doing this, the name Bloody Mary was given to her. At this time Mary Tudorwas queen and wanted to produce the next heir. It was said that Mary had a very hard time conceiving. There were rumors saying that Mary eventually became pregnant but was pregnant with a ghost baby. Due to the fact Mary could not conceive a child, her sister Elizabeth was given the throne and soon after sentenced Mary to death. After her death everyone would say they would see Queen Mary in their mirrors.
Another version of who Bloody Mary is, is the story of the witch in the woods. At a point in time, little girls were starting to go missing and the witch was of course a suspect. No one had ever been to the witch’s home before, but when they went she was more beautiful than anyone had imagined.
With any more questions asked, they left the young, beautiful girl alone. Then one night I little girl left her home in the middle of the night. While everyone was out, looking for the little girl they spotted a light in the middle of the woods. Everyone thought the light was the little girl, then once they got closer they seen it was the witch. She tried to run, but they caught her and burnt her in a barn fire. While burning, it was said she was casting a spell on anyone who would chant her name in the mirror.

 Works Cited
Beesley, Angela. “Bloody Mary.” Photograph. Wikia. Wikia, 26 May 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2015
Paul, Robert A. “Bloody Mary in the Mirror." American Imago. Winter2003, Vol. 60 Issue 4, p545. 5p. Web. 7 Oct. 2015.
Richardson Jancy. “The tragic true story of the real life bloody mary.” Online Video Clip. Moviepilot. Moviepilot, 2 Apr. 2015. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.
Richardson, Jancy. “I stole your baby bloody mary” Photograph. Moviepilot. Moviepilot, 2 Apr. 2015. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.

Further Research
This link gives information about different versions of bloody mary. It gives more information about bloody mary rituals and what to do to make her appear.
This link gets more in depth about the game. How it is a popular game at children’s sleepovers.
This link is about a team of investigators who investigate hauntings. They talk about how people actually believe in bloody mary, and ask that they do further research on it.,share_video
This link from Movie Pilot outlines the history of Bloody Mary and includes an informational video.

Glastonbury and the Holy Grail

Tanner Connelly
The Holy Grail

A long time ago, in a land far, far away, there was a legendary object called the Holy Grail that
was used on a very memorable moment in Christian history, the Last Supper. This holy object
has been sought after for centuries. Scientists, archaeologists, and historians have traveled the
world and analyzed the Holy Grail’s history in an attempt to find the historical object for over
900 years says

What is the Holy Grail

Scientists have many different theories about what the holy grail may look like, some people say
that it’s a golden cup, or a plate, or even a serving dish. There have also been many theories
regarding the holy grail’s location such as Glastonbury England, Scotland’s Rosslyn Chapel, the
sewers of Jerusalem, and even Fort Knox in Kentucky.

Over the years many scientist and historians have found manuscripts pertaining to the holy grail.
Some of these manuscripts were in the possession of King Edward the III and King Arthur.
These manuscripts were written by Chretien de Troyes a late famous 12th century poet and
Robert de Boron, who was also a late 12 and early 13th century poet. Numerous stories and
legends have linked the Holy Grail to Glastonbury England. There have been multiple
assumptions about where the holy grail may be located. Some other possible locations that have
been are Accokeek Maryland, Oak Island in Nova Scotia, and The Dome of the rock in

Many stories have been passed around that the Grail has been found, but an article on
says that the
actual grail was found by two historians named Margarita Torres and Jose Ortega del Rio that
supposedly found it in a Spanish basilica. Centuries of searching for the Grail has consumed
archaeologists and historians. The historians say that the “Grail has been in the possession of the
basilica since the 11th century. The historians say the the Grail is a jewel-encrusted goblet, the
two historians had searched Islamic remains in the basilica of San Isidoro. They came across
Egyptian parchments that stated the Grail had been taken from Jerusalem to Cairo and then given
to the emir who ruled an Islamic kingdom. But this isn’t the first time the Grail has been
“found”, over 200 cups/goblets have been found from Latvia to Scotland, that have all been
deemed as the Holy Relic.

Works Cited:
Braswell, Mary Flowers. "The Search for The Holy Grail: Arthurian Lacunae in The England of

Edward III." Studies in Philology 108.4 (2011): 469-487. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Oct.

Ellis, Sian. "Mists Over Glastonbury." British Heritage 35.5 (2014): 46-51. Academic Search
Premier. Web. 12 Oct. 2015

Locke, Frederick W. “The Quest for The Holy Grail.” New York: AMS press Inc. 1967. Print

Synan, Mariel. “What Is the Holy Grail.” 2015. Web. October 14, 2015

Klein, Christopher. “is the quest for the holy grail over?” 2014. Web. October 14, 2015

Additional research:

Discovery Civilization Documentary The Holy Grail - Discovery Channel Documentary part 1

Unlucky Number 13

Lilly Shoaf

Along the years an unlucky number has been passed down through myths and words left unspoken rather by actions left by the unlucky day known by Friday the 13th. According to many different articles I have read, there are to be many different superstitions about the number. An article entitled “The New Encyclopedia Of Judaism.” talks about different religions and how the number affects them. A few religions the number haunts the most is Christianity, Judaism, and Romans. In the article “13 Reasons People Think the Number 13 is Unlucky”  it’s more explained of what those reasons are. In Christian beliefs there was thirteen people at the Last Supper. It’s said that Judas Iscariot is the one who betrayed Jesus and was the thirteenth man to take his place at the table. With Christianity, many Christians believe that Jesus was crucified on Friday. Researchers, however, believe that it wasn’t a case of Friday the thirteenth. It was possibly Friday, April 3rd. Many Christians believe that Cain and Abel’s debacle took place on that date. Another Norse legend that article talks about is a legend that has twelve Gods sitting down at a banquet when the thirteenth God, Loki, shows up, whom is uninvited. He kills one of the other Gods, which led to events that resulted in the death of a bunch of Gods, a slew of natural disasters, and the eradication of everything on Earth except for two human survivors.

Everyone has heard of Friday the 13th, but some people don’t know what the superstition is about though. In the article “FRIDAY THE 13TH” it talks about how scared people are about the date. Some people won’t even go outside their home. The number thirteen continues to have an unlucky association today. Thirteen is so disliked that many cities do not have a 13th Street or a 13th Avenue, many high-rise buildings avoid having a 13th floor, some hospitals avoid labeling rooms with the number 13 and many airports will not have a gate 13! The origin of fears surrounding Friday the 13th is unclear. There is reportedly no written evidence of Friday the 13th superstition before the 19th century, but superstitions surrounding the number 13 date back to at least 1700 BC.

Symbolism tells us different things about the number. It says that the number brings the test, the suffering and the death. It symbolizes the death to the matter or to oneself and the birth to the spirit. The number brings bad luck and misfortune. There is many different things the unlucky number symbolizes. Mostly scary, superstitious beliefs that cannot be proven.

Works cited
“Image of elevator.” Photograph. Bury. Bury, 13 July 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2015

“Why is 13 an Unlucky Number?” Video. Stuff You’ve Probably Wondered. YouTube, 20 August 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.

"Ead Ml Yode'a." The New Encyclopedia of Judaism. Eds. Geoffrey Wigoder, Fred Skolnik, and Shmuel Himelstein. New York: New York University Press, 2002. Credo Reference. Web. 13 Oct 2015.

Moore, Steve. "Friday the 13th." Chambers Dictionary of the Unexplained. Ed. Una McGovern. London: Chambers Harrap, 2007. Credo Reference. Web. 13 Oct 2015

Conradt Stacy. “13 Reasons People Think the Number 13 is Unlucky” 3 January, 2013; n. pag. Web. 7 October 2015.

Further research
Greenberg, Julia. ”Friday the 13th: History, Origins, Myths and Superstitions of the Unlucky Day”International Business Times. 13 January 2012. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.
This article is about the superstitions of Friday the 13th.
"Numerology." The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide. Abington: Helicon, 2015. Credo Reference. Web. 13 Oct 2015.
This article is about how numbers connect to the world of humans, compared to the structure of
the universe.